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European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.3





Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior

Zain-Ul-Abideen (Corresponding Author) Department of Management Sciences, Abbasia Campus, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. E-mail: zuabideen@gmail.com

Salman Saleem
Department of Business Administration,
Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: salmankhan302@gmail.com


Abstract
Advertising is a form of communication intended to convince an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, information, or services etc. This paper investigates the relationship between independent variables which are environmental response and emotional response with attitudinal and behavioral aspect of consumer buying behavior, by tapping the responses of 200 respondents using telecommunication services from Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Lahore (cities of Pakistan). The major findings of the study demonstrate an overall normal association between the variables but in-depth analysis found that emotional response of consumer purchase behavior is the variable that results into strong association with the consumer buying behavior. It is true that people purchase those brands with which they are emotionally attached. This study reports new evidences in the field of consumer buying behavior of consumers pertaining to the local markets of these cities of Pakistan.

Keywords: Environmental response, Emotional response, Consumer buying behavior.

1. Introduction
Almost every one grows up in the world which is flooded with the mass media e.g. television, advertising, films, videos, billboards, magazines, movies, music, newspapers, and internet (Latif & Abideen, 2011). Of all marketing weapons, advertising is renowned for its long lasting impact on viewer’s mind, as its exposure is much broader (Katke, 2007). Advertising is a subset of promotion mix which is one of the 4P’s in the marketing mix i.e. product, price, place and promotion. As a promotional strategy, advertising serve as a major tool in creating product awareness in the mind of a potential consumer to take eventual purchase decision. Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. Advertising through all mediums influence audiences, but television is one of the strongest medium of advertising and due to its mass reach; it can influence not only the individual’s attitude, behavior, life style, exposure and in the long run, even the culture of the country (Latif and Abideen, 2011).
Telecommunication technology enables business and industry to grow at a faster pace while simultaneously contributing to the economic development and at the same time telecommunication infrastructure can be reliable indicator of economic development. Cellular phone industry has been one of the profitable businesses in Asian business (Roberts, 1998). E.g. In 2001, China’s cell phone market grew into 130 million users, exceeding the U.S.’s market for the first time (Robertson, 2001). Moreover, in 2004, Chinese cell phone users’ population reached 335 million (25% of the total Chinese population), 65 million more than 2003 (Statistics of CMII,
2005). Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) listed China as its top priority in the SWOT analysis. The country’s growing population and huge demand potential have always been an attraction for many high-tech multinational companies.
The evolution of advertisement dates back into the ancient times. Societies used symbols, and pictorial signs to attract their product users. Over centuries, these elements were used for promotion of products. In the early ages, these were handmade and were produced at limited scale for promotions. Later on, this phenomenon used and gained strength more intensively for promotional purposes. Today’s modern environment, advertisements have become one of the major sources of communicational tool between the manufacturer and the user of the products.


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European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.3

A company cannot make dream to be a well known brand until they invests in their promotional activities, for which consumer market have been dominating through advertisements (Hussainy et al., 2008).As the primary mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behavior. They spend a lot of money to keep individual’s interest in their products. They need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they would like. It also appears that advertising may have the potential to contribute to brand choice among consumers (Latif et al., 2011).
The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently in people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind. These brand cognition influence consideration, evaluation, and finally purchases (Romaniuk and Sharp, 2003). The principal aim of consumer behavior analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behavior, especially the economic, social and psychological aspects (Ayanwale et al., 2005). When young people choose advertising information and characters as their role models, they may not only identify with them but also intend to copy them in terms of how they dress and what they are going to buy (Latif et al.,
2011).
Traditional hierarchy-of-effects models of advertising state that advertising exposure leads to cognitions, such as memory about the advertisement, the brand; which in turn leads to attitudes, i.e. Product liking and attitude toward purchase; which in the end leads to behaviors, like buying the advertised product (Mendelson and Bolls,
2002). As the market is surplus with several products or services, so many companies make similar functional claim; so, it has become extremely difficult for companies to differentiate their products or services based on functional attributes alone. Differentiations based on functional attributes, which are shown in advertisement, are never long lasting as the competitors could copy the same (Hussainy et al., 2008). Therefore, the marketers give the concept of brand image. Like by creating the character of the caring mother, the marketer injects emotion into the consumer’s learning and process of advertisements (Jalees, 2006). Doing so advertiser creates those types of advertisements, which carry emotional bond with consumer.
Therefore, that consumer is more likely to associate with advertisements of those brands, which have emotional values and messages. Because, positive emotional appeals also provide a strong brand cue and stimulate category-based processing (Abideen and Latif, 2011). If the categorization process is successful, then the affect and beliefs associated with this category in memory are transferred to the object itself. Consumers are not only at first confused and disordered in mind, but they also try to categorize the brand association with their existing memory, when thousands of products are faced by them, and they might reposition memories to outline a brand image and perception / concept toward new products. They can categorize latest information into particular brand or product group label and store them accordingly. This procedure is not only as sociated to consumer’s familiarity and information, but also attachment and preference of brand. It is also suggested that consumer can disregard or prevail over the dissonance from brand extension (Abideen and Latif, 2011).
In today’s dynamic world, it is almost impossible for advertisers to deliver advertising message and information to buyers without use of advertising. Certainly, this may be because of the globalization and accessibility of hundreds of channels for the viewers of this modern era. Now a day, due to globalized economy, which made available a bulk of marketing stimuli to the modern consumers. More often consumerism describes the way of equating personal happiness, with purchasing material possessions and consumption in excess of one’s need
(Saleem et al., 2010).
This research is based on attitudinal behavior of consumer in different buying behavior. The basic objectives of this research are to assess the influence of emotional advertising through attitudinal buying behavior consumer and analyze the influence of environmental advertising through attitudinal buying behavior consumer.

2. Pakistan Mobile Sector
Like many countries of the world, mobile sector had grown tremendously in Pakistan. Cellular Mobile density, which was 3.29% in 2004, had now risen to 64.8% until April 2011. Telecom revenues had risen from Rs. 116,
827 million in 2003-04 to Rs. 357,712 million until 2009-10. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) which was 207.1
US$ million in 2003-04 raised to 374 US $ million in 2009-10 (pta.gov.pk, 2008).These indicators suggest that Pakistan is an emerging market of mobile users. This had huge potential growth for the marketers. High mobile density results in more mobile marketing (Chowdhury et al., 2006). Cellular subscribers until June 2011 are
108,894,518 in Pakistan as compared to 5,022,908 in 2003-04 (PTA, 2011).
As at 31 March 2011, Telenor Pakistan had a market share of approximately 24.2%. In addition to Telenor Pakistan, there are five other mobile operators in Pakistan: Mobilink, Ufone, Warid, Zong and Instaphone. Based on PTA numbers as at 31 March 2011, Mobilink was the largest mobile operator in Pakistan with a market share of approximately 30.8%, Ufone had a market share of approximately 19.3%, Warid had a market share of approximately 16.7%, and Zong had a market share of approximately 8.9% (Telenor, 2011).


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European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org
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3. Advertising and consumer behaviour
Advertiser’s primary objective is to reach Prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keep individuals (markets) Interested in their products. To succeed, they need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do. The advertisers Goals is to get enough relevant market data to Develop accurate profiles of buyers-to-find the common group
(and symbols) for communications This involves the study of consumers behaviour: The mental and emotional processes and the Physical activities of people who purchase and Use goods and services to satisfy particular needs And wants (Arens, 1996).
Proctor et al. (1982) noted that the principal aim of consumer behaviour analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behaviour, especially the economic, social and psychological aspects that can indicate the most favored marketing mix that management should select. Consumer behaviour analysis helps to determine the direction that consumer behaviour is likely to make and to give preferred trends in product development, and attributes of alternatives communication method etc. Consumer behaviours analysis views the consumer as another variable in the marketing sequence, a variable that cannot be-controlled and that will interpret the product or service not only in terms of the physical characteristics, but in the context of this image according to the social and psychological makeup of that individual consumer (or group of Consumers).
Economic theory has sought to establish relationships between selling prices, sales achieved and consumer’s income; similarly, advertising expenditure is frequently compared with sales. On other occasions financial accounting principles maybe applied to analyze profit and loss. Management ratios, net profit before tax, liquidity and solvency ratios can all be investigated. Under the situations the importance of the consumer’s motivations, perceptions, attitudes and beliefs are largely ignored. The consumer is assumed to be “rational” that is, to react in the direction that would be suggested by economic theory and financial principles.
However, it is often apparent that consumer behaviours do not fall neatly into these expected patterns. It is for these reason that consumer behaviour analysis is conducted as yet another tool to assess the complexities of marketing operations (Adeolu et al., 2005).

4. Literature Review
Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. As its name suggests, mass communication uses the same message for everyone in an audience. Today, definitions of advertising abound. We might define it as communication process, a marketing process, an economic and social process, a public relations process or information and persuasion process (Arens, 1996). Dunn et al. (1978) viewed advertising from its functional perspectives, hence they define it as a paid, non-personal communication through various media by business firms, non-profit organization, and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience. Morden (1991) is of the opinion that advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it.
Technology advancement had not given us new products and services, but they had changed the meaning of many words. With increase in mass media, advertising effectiveness, as more traditional mass media, had reduced. Now advertiser is looking for new and presumably less cluttered media. The current age of digital media had given consumer choices to opt in and opt out of marketing messages and advertising. Consumers are getting more control of what they want and when they want. All these things are moving toward the interactive marketing (Newell & Merier, 2007; Kondo & Nakahara, 2007).
As a promotional strategy, advertising provides a major tool in creating product awareness and condition the mind of a potential consumer to take final purchase decision. As advertiser’s primary mission is to reach potential customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behavior (Ayanwale et al., 2005 and Adelaar et al., 2003). Ayanwale et al (2005) conducted research on advertisement of Bournvita, he found as advertising has a major influence on consumers’ likeness for Bournvita food drink. Similar researches have already been conducted for the quality of Bournvita.
Adelaar et al. (2003) conducted study on online compact discs (CDs) shopping behavior of consumer through emotional advertising. Advertising is a non-personal and paid form where ideas, concepts, products or services, and information, are promoted through media (visual, verbal, and text) by an identified sponsor to persuade or influence behavior (Ayanwale et al. 2005, and Bovee et el. 1995). Television advertising is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc., are promoted via the medium of television. Through television, advertisers can reach a wide variety of consumers (Abideen et al., 2011).
Over a number of years in the past, many models and constructs have been discussed in the marketing and advertising literature, each having the objective of trying to understand the processes used by consumers to make brand or product evaluations when they are exposed to advertisements (Muehling et al., 1993). These works have investigated relationships among cognitive responses directed towards the brand,

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advertisement, brand attitudes, and finally, purchase intentions and behavior. A review of the literature states that, involving attitude towards advertisement influence brand attitudes and supports the advertisement–brand attitude relationship across different media and product types (Muehling et al., 1988).

Mass media and advertising also make available information about consumption and the value of material goods
(Abideen et al., 2011). O’Guinn and Faber (1989) explained that once buying behavior is developed, the individual face great difficulty in controlling buying even after its detrimental effects are recognized.

4.1 Emotional Response
Advertisement is one of the effective tools of integrated marketing communication to emotionally motivate consumers to buy the products. It also has strong linkage with entertainment and the proliferation of media has blurred the distinguishing lines between advertisements and entertainment (Moore, 2004). Advertising is to create brand awareness, preference, and selection of product or services. The most influencing theory in marketing and advertising research is attitude-towards-the-ad. However, the attitude that is formed towards the ad help in influencing consumer’s attitudes toward the brand until their purchase intent (Goldsmith and Lofferty,
2002). Consumer buying behavior is based on the concept and idea that he/she simply decided to purchase a product or service at the spot (Adelaar et al. 2003). As the goal of effective advertising is to form positive attitude toward ad and the brand, to increase the number of purchase, then a positive emotional response to an ad may be the best indicator of effective advertising (Goldsmith and Lofferty, 2002). That’s why basic aim of advertising to encourage people to buy things and creates awareness (Bijmolt et al. 1998).
Advertising proliferate the beliefs that possessions are more important and desirable qualities like beauty, achievement, prominence and happiness can be acquired only by material possessions (Latif & Abideen, 2011). According to the traditional attitude theory consumer behavior is predicted from consumer attitude when consumers buy the brand, which they like the most. An attitude may be defined as “acquire behavioral disposition” (Smith and Swinyard, 1983). However Adelaar et al. (2003) suggested that behavior is a result of emotional response, which is affected by three independent factors:

Pleasure: the state in which person feel good, happy, or joyful in a particular situation.
Arousal: the state of feeling that is varying from person to person in different situations i.e. feeling of excitement, active, bored, or sleepy.
Dominance: this defines individual feelings, which are in control of or free to act in a particular situation.

These appear when consumer watches an advertisement about the brand and develops likeness for the brand and then eventually willing to purchase it (Goldsmith and Lofferty, 2002). The terminology for ‘actual buying behavior’ is that consumer in real sense purchase the product or services (Adelaar et al. 2003). Therefore, the aim of consumer behavior analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer-buying behavior, especially the economic, social and psychological aspects. This analysis helps to determine the direction that consumer behavior is likely to make and to give preferred trends in product development, attributes of the alternative communication method etc (Ayanwale et al. 2005).
Another component of effective advertisement that creates emotional response is the consumer ability to recall the brand ad (Goldsmith and Lofferty, 2002). Thus, the relative importance of brand recall will depend on the extent to which consumer makes product related decisions, which leads to the brand awareness (Keller,
2006).This brand awareness help in ensuring the recall ad, which has the competitive advantage over those brands that are not recalled easily. Thus positive attitude towards ads have more ability to recall the ads then those having negative attitude (Goldsmith and Lofferty, 2002).Through advertisement brand knowledge helps in influencing brand salience in such a way, that the quantity and freshness of the memories about the brand thought to be in buying situation that creates emotional response towards ads (Holden and Lutz, 1992).
However, individual uses cue in different buying situation for recalling the brand ad and greater chance of brand to be retrieved of any buyer, when different attributes are attached to the brand, which creates brand association
(Romaniuk and Sharp, 2004). As emotional advertising is considered to be most effective tools, so that consumer ultimately gives emotional response to that product (Brassington and Pettitt, 2001). Normally, a positive relationship between visual, verbal and text intensity of media and emotional response has been found
(Bezijian-Avery et al. 1998).

Thus, hypothesis formed is as under:

H1: There is a significant relationship between emotional response and consumer buying behavior in Pakistan.

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4.2 Environmental Response
Environmental attitudes are conceptualized in terms of attitude theory as being composed of beliefs. Environmental concern appears to be a specific belief, which is largely set in cognitive structure and should be considered an opinion rather than an attitude (Heberlein and Wisconsin, 1998). Environmental variables might affect on buying behaviors of consumer (Greenley and Foxall, 1997). As marketing related research proposed that environment provides certain type of experience for consumer, which are used for promotion and selling product or services (Adelaar et al. 2003). Specially, marketing research has attempted to explain the effects of different environmental conditions, like atmosphere in retailing store, and background music at the time of purchasing (Morris and Boone, 1998).
In our society, social norms have led to a cultural climate that favors the expression of impulse and moment desire (Wood, 1998). Sensory stimuli can reduce self-control mechanisms; which can hinder or even reduce the ability of consumers to resist the temptation to engage in desire moment (Kappas, 2002). Impulse buying may also be driven by other variables such as rewards, possessions, materialism, moment desire, post-purchase decision and self-exploration (Greenley and Foxall, 1997). Therefore, businesses offer consumers specific types of media experiences, which are used for setting the stage or creating a context that promotes or sells related products or services (Rifkin, 2000).
Although, those purchasers who plan to buy a product but they may not have yet decided features and brand that they want, can be considered impulse buyers (Goldsmith and Lofferty, 2002). Shopping lifestyle is defined as the behavior exhibited by purchaser with regard to the series of personal responses and opinions about purchase of the products (Tirmizi, 2009). In this situation, consumers use the retail store for gaining information, finding options, comparing products and then reaching to a purchase decision (Stern, 1962). Although impulse behavior is preceded by a consumer’s intention to buy impulsively the products or services (Adelaar et al. 2003). However, the environmental psychology model provides better concept of emotional response rather than traditional marketing research (Hitchon, 1994). Sense modalities and information rates make the environmental psychology model. Sense modalities are sound, sight, and touch that can affect user experience. The information rate can affects user for gaining information from advertisement. Thus, this model is applicable to music, text lyrics, image, and music video, which are strongly related with each other and are shown in advertisement. The environmental psychology model proposes an environment (such as retailing store) that produces an emotional state in an individual that can categorized into pleasure, arousal or dominance in buying situation (Adelaar et al.
2003). This study defines media, which provides information that is represented by the combination of sound, sight, and touch sources. This study covers various areas of the visual and verbal media messages through which people takes information. The verbal and visual information affects individual’s perception of the environmental stimuli.

Thus, hypothesis formed is as under:

H2: There is a significant relationship between environmental response and consumer buying behavior in
Pakistan.

5. Research Model

Research model proposed is as under:



















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6. Methodology

6.1 Population
The consumer who use different types of telecom services and who shop new services from their franchises, head offices etc, in the cities of Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore was taken as the population of this study.

6.2 Sampling Technique and Sample Size
A convenient sample (non-probability sampling method) of 200 consumers’ was shared up for the current study in which respondent of the study was request to complete the structured questionnaire on voluntary basis.

6.3 Data Collection Technique and Instrument
The data was collected by means of well developed, structured and verified scale. All of the questionnaires were distributed among the respondents in the defined areas personally by the researchers. The data was collected in the period of 45 days and then responses were fed into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 for analysis and evaluation.
The sub parts of instrument are taken from different studies. The item of emotional response is taken from the study of Tammo and Bajmolt et al. (1998) and Adelaar et al. (2003), where items were measured on 5 - point likert scale ranging from (1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree). The item of environmental response is adopted from the study of Adelaar et al. (2003), where items were measured on 5- point likert scale ranging from (1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree). The last sub part of questionnaire was retrieved from the paper of Dittmar, Long and Meek (2004), where items are measured from 5 point likert scale ranging from (1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree).

6.4 Data Analysis Techniques Multiple Regression was used as a statistical test to determine the degree of relationship between the variables involved in this study. As we have more than one independent variable(s) involved in study.

7. Result and Discussion

7.1 Instrument Reliability
To check the internal reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha was run. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.78 for emotional response, 0.82 for environmental response and 0.75 for last part respectively. All values are above the standard value proposed by (Nummally, 1978) of 0.70, showing that our instrument is reliable and we can confidently apply different statistical tests and interpret the results with confidence.

7.2 Data Analysis
The data presented in table shows the result extracted on the basis of multiple regression to find the association level between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The testing of hypotheses developed earlier

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revealed the following results in which first hypothesis is rejected based on their weak associations among the variables involved (p > 0.05). Whereas second hypothesis is accepted based on the strong association among the variables involved (p < 0.05). Insert Table No.1 and Graph No.1 here The results reveal that independent variable; emotional response of the consumer regarding buying products account variation in the dependent variables with t-value [11.164] that is significant at (p < 0.05), where as independent variables; environmental response of the consumers regarding buying products account no variation in the dependent variable with t-values is not significant at (p > 0.05). We found that there is positive significant impact of these independent variables on the dependent variable (F = 30.144) (p < 0.05). The value of Beta for all the independent variables shows a positive association within the model of coefficients. The value of (R- Square = 0.261) and (R = 0.511) predicting a moderate relationship between the set of independent variables and the dependent variable with the reduced error of prediction by 26.1 percent.
A positive relationship of emotional response with the consumer buying behavior of the consumers was reported by Goldsmith and Lofferty (2002). Where as, in our study, statistics shows a positive association between emotional response and attitudinal and behavioral aspects of consumer buying. Here, according to the statistical interpretation of results emotional response can be taken as consumer buying because consumers having emotional attachment.
The study of Adelaar et al (2003) reported a strong association between environmental response and consumer buying behavior. The present study reveals that environmental response is negative associated with the overall consumer buying behavior. Here, according to the statistical interpretation of results environmental response cannot be taken as consumer buying because consumers having environmental condition.

8. Conclusion
The results of this research study clearly indicate that there exits a weak association between environmental response with the consumer buying behavior including the attitudinal as well as behavioral aspects of the consumers buying behavior. Emotional response on the other hand established strong association with the consumer buying behavior.
Therefore, it is established through this research that consumers purchase products in the areas of Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore by emotional response, rather that environmental response. The environmental response of the purchasing associates these buyers with unplanned or impulse buying but in this research consumer purchase those products from which consumer are emotionally attached. In addition, these attachments are created through advertisement as audio, video and text form, which appeals him or her.

9. Further Research
This research is conducted through telecom services; therefore generalize this result, it is necessary for future researcher to do this research by using other bands. In addition, there is a need to conduct research regarding personality characteristics of consumers and find their impact on the consumer buying behavior in Pakistan. This proposed research can bring to surface the true association of personality characteristics of the consumers having buying behavior and will also facilitate in identifying the main influential psychological factors accelerating the consumer buying behavior in consumers and it will definitely help practitioners in improving their marketing strategies regarding products sales.

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Table No.1

(Beta Coefficients, Standard error in parenthesis, t-Value in Brackets and P- Values in italics)

Constant IV1 IV2 R2 F-Statistics
.011

1.608
(.250)
[6.423]

.542
(.049)
[11.164]

(.063)
[.183] .261


30.144




.000 .000 .855 _ .000



Result of
Hypothesis



H1
Accepted



H2 _ _
Rejected






Legend: Constant: Attitudinal and Behavioral aspect of consumer buying behavior
IV1: Emotional response
IV2: Environmental response


Graph No.1













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European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.3
















































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